Oskar Hadbawnik. Die Zipser in der
Bukowina: Anfang, Aufbau und Ende ihres buchenländischen Bergbaues in den
Nordkarpaten. Trans. and ed. by Sophie A. Welisch. Munich: Landsmannschaft
der Buchenlanddeutschen, 1987. Pp. 216-217.
Published on the World-Wide-Web
by the Bukovina Society of the Americas,
June 25, 2006
Diese Seite auf Deutsch
When one is on the main street which leads from
Kimpolung to Jakobeny, about 10 kilometers after leaving Kimpolung in the
community of Pozoritta, the streets forks. The main street continues further
into the Putna Valley, rising over Valea Putnei toward the Mestekanestie Pass
while the road leading from the main street veers off to the right, i.e.,
in an easterly direction into the valley along the Moldavia [River] to Luisental,
which one reaches after about 4 kilometers. If one proceeds further upward in
the Moldavia Valley, one comes to the larger community of Fundul Moldovei.
Luisental was a street village, which owes is founding and establishment (1805)
to the search and demand for copper ore. The first Zipser settlers came via
“military transport” at the behest of the originally operator and owner of the
copper works, that being the Austrian government or the Austrian state, and
mined for copper ore in Luisental and Pozoritta. About this Raimund Friedrich
1807 soldiers of the Austrian military cut down the trees along the northern
slopes of the Paraul Broastei (Froschbach = Frog Stream) up to the back
of the mountain to the bridge and prepared it for the housing construction to
begin the following summer. The log huts built by the soldiers in 1808
were promptly occupied by miners from Hungary.
In time 140 houses were constructed. The village was named in honor of
Princess Maria-Louise, later the wife of Napoleon I. The homes are spaced in
equal distance from each other on both sides of the street, which leads from
Pozoritta to Oberfundul-Moldovei and runs parallel to the Moldavia [River].
There is a garden behind each house in the dimension of one yoke of land.”
[1 yoke = 0.5755 hectare; 1 hectare = 2.471 acres—sw].
was only in 1821 that Anton Manz took over the total mining facilities of
Luisental and Pozoritta and successfully ran the mining of copper ore and copper
production. The results of this mining enterprise were so successful and
productive that Manz, through the high economic profits of these works, could
expand, develop and make greater investments at his less productive
installations, mainly in Mariensee-Kirlibaba and Jakobeny. Further information
about the development of these mining facilities may be found in Chapter II [of
this book], entitled “Historic Data about the Settlement of the Zipsers in
From previously cited sources it cannot be determined how many miners or
families of miners were additionally brought to and settled in Luisental after
Manz’s takeover of the installations (1821). As already mentioned, Luisental,
established on state land, was settled by Zipsers brought from Hungary.
Considering the profit which Manz reaped from these installations, it is hardly
conceivable, that he could have run them without aid of additional skilled
workers, entailing the further settlement of Zipsers in Luisental and Pozoritta.
The assumption that still more Zipsers were settled after 1821 is probable,
although it can not be verified by the sources.
Another individual haling from Luisental, Privy Councilor Magistrate Leopold
Jekal, also reports on the work of the miners in that village. See the quotation
from the report of Dr. Pfeifer.
his study about “The Character of the Settlement in Bukovina” (Das
Ansiedlungswesen in der Bukowina, Innsbruck: 1902), Kaindl states that the
number of the Germans living in the “estate district” (Gutsbebiet) of
Luisental can be estimated at almost 600 souls but fails to indicate the time
frame to which this number relates. It is significant to note that right from
the beginning of the first settlement, i.e., from the initiation of the
mining activity and the settling of the mining personnel, the operators of the
installations very precisely distinguished and made reference to which
“properties,” i.e., on what land the houses of the settlers would be
built. A distinction was made between state properties, i.e., those
belonging to the community, the owners of which were termed “community
residents,” and those whose houses had been built on properties of the Greek
Orthodox Religious Foundation, i.e., on similarly-named “estate
districts”; these were the occupants of the mining settlement. The distinction,
at first glance hardly noticed by many, proved later to be of considerable
importance to their occupants for the “free sale” (Freikauf)
of the individual parcels after the collapse of the Manz mining enterprise and
the takeover of the total undertaking by the Greek Orthodox Religious Foundation.
Based to the official results of the last census in 1939 as reported by Privy
Councilor Jekal, 1009 Germans lived in Luisental shortly before the 
According to the opinions of other Bukovinians from Luisental this number is
much too low. They reckon that those Germans living in Luisental shortly before
the resettlement numbered between 1300 and 1500.
the recent (1985) publication, “The Multinational Austrian School System in
Bukovina” (Das multinationale österreichische Schulwesen in der
Bukowina, vol. I), Rudolf Wagner notes that as early as 1805 a two-class
elementary school with German as the language of instruction was opened and in
1904 was under the direction of Headmaster Ludwig Assman. According to the same
sources, after the annexation of Bukovina by Romania, i.e., at the end of
the Austrian era (1918), Luisental had a three-class German elementary school
with the following personnel: Headmaster Emil Roland Schweitzer, and the
teachers Georg Pfeifer, Marie Pechmann, Genedral Gottlieb, Johann Damm and
Katharina Gebert. Privy Councilor Jekal notes in his memoirs that he also
attended the Luisental German elementary school before the beginning of the
First World War at which time Director Rudolf Stoss as well as the teacher Georg
Pfeifer were on the staff. After the First World War during the years 1922/23
the German elementary school was Romanized and Luisental had no German-language
school for its German children.
Despite much discrimination regarding the targeted “Romanization” of the
minorities by the central Romanian State Administration after the First World
War, no dissension or tension existed in Luisental between the Romanians and
their German neighbors. They had mutual respect for one another; moreover, the
amiable fellowship and toleration from before the First World War contributed
considerably to the good and reasonable relations between the two partners. As
an example of the above, one can point to the demeanor of the Romanians at the
departure of the Germans on the occasion of the resettlement (1940)—see article
by Dr. Pfeifer.
Families & Villages
since June 25, 2006